Reading every book by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. seemed like a good way to begin. The Presidential histories The Age of Jackson (Boston, 1945); The Crisis of the Old Order (Boston, 1956); The Coming of the New Deal (Boston, 1958); and The Politics of Upheaval (Boston, 1960) all filled in Schlesinger's basic conception of the political process, as did The Democratic Process (New London, 1948). Sources for the anti‑Communist Schlesinger were The Vital Center (Boston, 1949); The General and the President, (New York, 1951). For Schlesinger in the 1960's I read The Bitter Heritage (Boston, 1966); Kennedy or Nixon: Does it Make any Difference? (New York, 1960); A Thousand Days (Boston, 11965); Robert Kennedy and His Times(Boston, 1968). Also useful were The Modern Caesars vs. Democracy (Fredericton, 1961). Other Schlesinger books I read are A Pilgrim's Progress: Orestes Brownson (Boston, 1960); Ideas and Responsibility(New York, 1966) The Imperial Presidency (New York, 1973). Among the books Schlesinger has written introductions to or contributed to are: The Promise of American Life, by Herbert Croly (Cambridge, 11965); The Faces of Five Decades: Selections from Fifty Years of the New Republic 1914‑1964 (New York, 1964): The Origins of the Cold War (Waltham, MA 1970); Dynamics of ‘World Power (New York, 1973); Paths of American Thought (Boston, 1963); Guide to Politics 1954 (New York, 1954); The Coming to Power Critical Presidential Elections in American History (New York, 1971); History of U.S. Political Parties (New York, 1973); Congress Investigates: A Documentary History 1792‑1974(New York, 1975).
John Bartlow Martin's two volumes Adlai Stevenson of Illinois (Garden City, 1977); and Adlai Stevenson and the World (New York, 1978) were indispensable, as were John Kenneth Galbraith's witty Ambassador's Journal (Boston, 1969); and A Life in our Times (Boston, 1981). John Gamb's John Kenneth Galbraith (Boston, 1975) and Leonard Silks's The Economists (New York, 1976) summarized Galbraith's thought well. Arthur Schlesinger Sr.'sIn Retrospect: The History of a Historian(New York, 1963) was essential; his The American as Reformer (Cambridge, 1950) was a pleasant piece celebrating liberalism. Reinhold Niebuhr, The Nature and Destiny of Man (New York, 1949) was crucial to providing background to the Schlesinger worldview.
Victor Lasky has written a pair of nasty but useful works, J.F.K. The Man and the Myth(New York, 1965), and R.F.K. The Myth and the Man (New York, 1968). Richard Walton, Cold War and Counterrevolution (New York, 1972); David Halberstam's The Best and the Brightest (New York, 1969) was useful background, as was The Powers That Be(New York, 1979); Jack Newfield,Robert Kennedy, A Memoir(New York, 1969) and Patrick Anderson, The President's Men(Garden City, 1968) had much helpful material.
In most of the following books, I just looked for index entries on Schlesinger. Theyare listed approximately from most toleast useful:
John F. Kennedy, The Strategy of Peace(New York, 1960); Henry Fairlie, The Kennedy Promise(Garden City, 1973); Ben Bradlee, Conversations with Kennedy(New York, 1975); William Manchester, The Death of the PresidentNew York, 1967); John Corry, The Manchester Affair (New York, 1967); Kenneth O'Donnell, Johnny We Hardly Knew Ye(Boston, 1970); Ted Sorenson, Kennedy(New York, 1965); Harris Wofford, Of Kennedys and Kings(New York, 1980); Jim Heath, J.F.K. and the Business Community(Chicago, 1969); TheodoreWhite, Making of the President 1960(New York, 1969); The Making of the President 1964(New York, 1965); The Making of the President 1968 (New York, 1965); Merle Miller, Lyndon (New York, 1980); David Koskoff, Joseph P. Kennedy(Englewood Cliffs, 1974); Joan and Clay Flair, The Search for JFK (New York, 1976); Gail Cameron, Rose, (New York, 1971); Albert Eisele, Almost to the Presidency (Blue Earth, Minn., 1972): Herbert Parmet, Jack, (New York, 1980); Roger Stuart, The Thought Brigade (New York, 1963); M. Stanton Evans, The Liberal Establishment (New York, 1963); Bruce Miroff, Pragmatic Illusions (New York, 1976); Hugh Sidey, John F. Kennedy, President (New York, 1964); Guenter Levy, America in Vietnam (New York, 1978); Carl M. Braus, John F. Kennedy and the Second Reconstruction (New York, 1977); Jim Heath, Decade of Disillusionment: the Kennedy‑Johnson Years(Bloomington, 1975); Lewis J. Paper, The Promise and the Performance, (New York, 1975); I.F. Stone, In a Time of Torment (New York, 1967); James M. Burns, Edward Kennedy and The Camelot Legacy(New York, 1976); Jules Witcover, 85 Days: The Last Campaign of Robert Kennedy (New York, 1969);
Alonzo Hamby's Beyond the New Deal (New York, 1973) put the era in perspective. Richard Freeland, The Truman Doctrine and the Origins of McCarthyism(New York, 1962) supplemented Hamby.
Consulted in part were John Garraty, Conversations with Historians (Toronto, 1970); Charles Kadushin, The American Intellectual Elite (Boston, 1974); Page Smith, The Historian and History (New York, 1964); Hubert Humphrey, The Education of a Public Man (Garden City, 1976) Dan Cohen, Undefeated: The Life of Hubert Humphrey (Minneapolis, 1978); Leonard and Mark Silk, The American Establishment (New York, 1980); Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States (New York, 1980); Douglas Miller and Marion Novak, The Fifties (Garden City, 1977); Robert CanaryGeorge Bancroft (New York, 1974);June Bingham's biography of Reinhold Niebuhr,Courage to Change (New York, 1961).
To see how others approached writing the history of an intellectual, I read Ronald Steele,Walter Lippmann and the American Century (Boston, 1980); and David Sui, Matthew Josephson: Bourgeoius Bohemian (New Haven, 1981). On the corruptions of power I read: Garry Wills, Nixon Agonistes (New York, 1971); Marian Morton, The Terrors of Ideological Politics (Cleveland, 1972); Christopher Lasch, The Agony of the American Left (New York, 1969); The New Radicalism in America (New York, 1960).
Marcus Cunliffe, Pastmasters: Some Essays on American Historians (New York, 1969); Current Biography 1946 and Mitchell Ross, The Literary Politicians (Garden City, 1978), a fine examination of Schlesinger's major works.
Letters by Arthur Schlesinger to Marcus Cunliffe (July 9, 1968). Provided to me by Schlesinger.
Rather than arranging the periodicals topically, I shall order them by magazine, so as to save some future Schlesinger biographer from the hours I spent with periodical guides. When the subject matter is not clear from the title, I have given a short explanation. The magazines listed below represent less than half of Schlesinger's writing, but there are limits to what even a speed‑reader can do. Articles that were reprinted in collections or books are not included. An "(AS)" means that the article is written by Arthur Schlesinger Jr.
"Conversation with Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.: The Use of Oral History'', (Fall 1980).
"America Experiment or Destiny?" (June 1977), (AS).
"Guideposts for Peace," (Nov.1946), (AS), review ofThe Congress of Vienna.
"Junior's Misses," (Nov. 1953), McCarthyite smear.
"Arthur Schlesinger Jr." (Oct. 1962), John Birch drivel. The author had tried to have Schlesinger fired from Harvard.
"Mr. Gunther Discovers America," (June 1947), (AS), review of Inside USA.
"Relations with the Vatican: Why Not?" (Jan. 1952), (AS).
"The New Isolationism," (May 1952), (AS), attack on Robert Taft.
"FDR: A Political Portrait," (Far. 1957), review of The Crisis of the Old Order.
"The Historian as Artist,"‘ (Jul. 1963), (AS), major article on his theory of historical writing.
"Mark Twain, or the Ambiguities," (Aug. 1966), (AS), review of Mr. Clemens and mark Twain.
"On theWriting of Contemporary History," (Mar. 1967), (AS), another important article on historical theory.
"Twenty Letters to a Father," (Nov. 1967), (AS), review of collection of letters of Stalin's daughter.
"Mustache Artist," (June 13, 1953), criticism of Schlesinger's criticism of Eisenhower.
"Liberal Anti‑communism Revisited," (Sept. 1967), (AS).
"Truman's Speech and Noam Chomsky," (Dec.1969), (AS), letter on Chomsky's distortion of a Truman speech. "The Presidency and Professor Schlesinger,'' (Feb.1974), on The Imperial Presidency.
"Africa for the Africans," (Sept. 1978), reply to Schlesinger's Wall Street Journal column arguing against American involvement in an African cold war.
"Bouncing Ball," (Auq.23, 1957), quality of life.
"Peephole Journalism," (Sep.3, 1965), hostile review of A Thousand Days.
"Professors as Bonus Babies," (Oct.4, 1968), the CUNY chair.
"A Professor Replies," (Nov.1, 1968), (AS), to above article.
"Psyching Nixon," (Jan.10, 1969), (AS).
"Two Questions about Vietnam," (Dec. 1967), (AS) review ofAuthors Take Sides or Vietnam.
"The Vital Center Reconsidered," (Sept. 1970) (AS)
"The Holy Family," (Apr. 1967), Gore Vidal calls A Thousand Daysy"The best political novel since Coningsby."
"The Historian and History," (Apr. 1963), (AS), on the differences in historical understanding caused by White House experience.
"Who Pays for Foreign Policy," (Spring 1975), (AS), comments on "messianic globalism."
"Foreign Service and National Morality," (Oct. 1961) (AS).
"Roosevelt and His Detractors,'' (June 1950) (AS), reply to revisionists.
"Many Faces of Communism," (Jan. 1960), (AS), diversity in the Communist world.
"Kremlin's Unruly Little Brother," (Feb. 1960), (AS). "Schlesinger at the White House," (July 1965), discussion of upcoming Thousand Days.
"The Annual Rites at Cannes," (Feb.1965), (AS), film festival.
"Vietnam and the End of the Age of Superpowers," (Mar. 1969), (AS).
"What if We Don't Impeach Him?" (May 1974), (AS).
Journal of Negro History
"Nationalism and History," (Jan. 1969), (AS).
"U.S. Communist Party," (Jul.29, 1946), (AS).
"Two Years Later," (Apr.7, 1947), (AS), admiring portrait of the Roosevelt family.
"Schlesinger and John F. Kennedy," (Jul.16, 1965), introduction to serialization of A Thousand Days beginning in that issue.
"Vietnam‑ What Should We Do Now?" (Aug. 9, 1966), (AS).
The Massachusetts Review
"The University in an Urban Society," (Summer 1967), (AS).
"Can Willkie Save His Party?" (Dec.6, 1941),(AS), on the old and new wings of the Republican party.
"Political culture in the United States," (Mar.13, 1948), (AS).
"What Eisenhower Was," (May 25, 1946), (AS), review of My Three Years with Eisenhower.
"The Other Henry Adams," (Dec.25, 1948), (AS), review of The Young Henry Adams.
"Schlesinger: Right Crisis Wrong Order," (Mar.23, 1957), William A. Williams review of Crisis of the Old Order.
"The Taste of Memory," (Aug.2, 1965), hostile review of A Thousand Days.
"Historian in the Service of Power,'' (Aug.6‑13, 1963), major article using declassified memos to examine Schlesinger's role in Bay of Pigs and questioning interpretations given in A Thousand Days.
"The Violation of Arthur," (Apr.9, 1963), the Boston debate and the suit.
"Bitter Pen of Arthur M.," (Aug.10 1965), on A Thousand Days serialization.
"Morte D'Arthur?" (June 27, 1967), Schlesinger's refusal to sign the "Doves for War" declaration on the Middle East.
"Schlesinger Eyes Comeback," (Aug.18, 1972).
"Oh No, Not Arthur Schlesinger Jr. Again," (Mar.17, 1978), one may infer that the Schlesinger‑ Buckley relationship is not friendly.
New England Quarterly
"The Problem of Richard Hildreth," (June 1940), (AS) ,examination of the Federalist historian.
The New Leader
"Prophet for a Secular Age," (Jan.24, 1972), (AS), obituary of Reinhold Niebuhr.
The New Republic
"His Rendezvous with History," (Apr. 15, 1946), (AS), on FDR.
"Adding Guns to E.C.A. Butter," (Nov.22, 1948), (AS), for European rearmament.
"Modern Man's Progress," (Nov. 9 1953), (AS), review of Age of Suspicions.
"Curmudgeon's Confessions," (Dec.7, 195:3), (AS), Review of Harold Ickes' diary.
"Bernard de Voto: American Patriot," (Nov. 28, 1955), (AS), eulogy.
"Plight of the American Intellectual," (June 1, 1956), (AS), bock reviews.
"Crackerbarrel Financier," (Jan.13, 1957),(AS), review of Bernard Baruch's autobiography.
"Theatre," (Feb.10, 1958), (AS), review of a play about FDR.
"Death Wish for Democrats," (Sept. 15, 1958), (AS), condemns anti‑intellectualism of some Democrats.
"Waugh a la Proust," (Oct. 20, 1958), (AS), book review. "Eggheads and Politics," (Oct. 27, 1958), (Leon Keyserling), rejoinder to Oct. 20 article.
"Galbraith and Schlesinger Reply to Leon Keyserling," (Nov.10, 1958), (AS), continuation of discussion of Democrats and intellectuals.
"Catholics in America," (Mar.21, 1960), (AS), defends the idea of a Catholic President.
"War Between Adams and Hamilton," (Jan.1, 1962), (AS), book review.
"Gardner Jackson 1897‑1965," (May 1, 1965), (AS).
"Hope for World Order,"(Jan. 9, 1965), (AS), review of book about the UN.
"The Keating Campaign'' (Oct.10, 1965), (AS), letter supporting Robert Kennedy.
"Why I am for Kennedy," (May 4, 1972), (AS).
"The Case for George McGovern," (Feb. 26, 1972), (AS). "The Once and Future Mandarin," (Nov.26, 1977), critical biography.
"Letter from Washington," (Feb.4, 1961), Richard Rovere praises Schlesinger's appointment.
"Worse Than Useless," (Jan,. 14 1963), controversy surrounding remarks on press accuracy.
"The Kennedy Administration: Shimmering Essence," (Dec. 6, 1965), review of A Thousand Days.
"A Brief, not a History," (Dec.20, 1965), comments on Schlesinger's "Meet the Press" appearance.
"National Book Awards 1966,11 (Mar.28, 1966).
"Superstar," (Oct.17, 1966), Arthur Schlesinger the "superprofessor."
"Our Country and Culture," (Sept. 1952), (AS), Schlesinger's contribution to a Partisan Review series of articles that symbolized the intellectuals' acceptance of American life.
"The Cold War and the West," (Winter 1962) (AS), reexamination of Cold War.
"America II," (Nov. 1970) (AS), review of William A. Williams' Roots of the Modern American Empire.
"The Schlesingers on Black History," (Summer 1972).
"Interview," (May 1967), mostly on foreign policy.
Problems of Communism
"A Muddling Evolution,'' (July 1966), (AS), the bureaucratization of the Soviet party.
"Arthur Schlesinger Jr." (Dec.17, 1973), superficial interview.
"Which Road for Democrats," (Jan.20, 1953), (AS), postmortem on election.
"Psychological Warfare: Can It Sell Freedom?" (Mar.31, 1953), (AS).
"Military Force: How Much is Enough?"(Aug.4, 1953), (AS).
"The Mysteries of Bataan," (Feb.2, 1954), (AS), review of The Mysteries of Bataan.
"The History of Business and Vice Versa," (Mar.30, 1954), (AS), review ofFord and Capitalism and Historians.
"The Big Game Hunter Who Tamed an Elephant," (May 25, 1954), (AS), review of Teddy Roosevelt biographies The Days of Armageddon and The Republican Roosevelt
"Getting Even with George III," (Jul.20, 1954), (AS), denied visiting professorship at Oxford College.
"Two Views of Finletter's ‘Power and Policy."‘ (Dec.2, 1954), (AS), military strategy.
"The Thread of History: Freedom or Fatality," (Dec.15, 1955), (AS), review ofHistorical Inevitability and Debates with Historians.
"The Challenge of Abundance," (May 3, 1956), (AS), major article or the quality of life.
"We Need a Liberal Administration," (May 31, 1956), (AS) and others, discussion of above article.
"Byzantium on the Potomac," (Aug. 12, 1965), hostile review of A Thousand Days.
Review of Politics
"Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. and the Discontents of Post‑war American Liberalism,"(Jan.1977), argues that Schlesinger's support of the "messianic" Robert Kennedy and George McGovern represented a break with his earlier acceptance of gradualism and man's limitations.
SalmagundiMichael Wreszin, "Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., Scholar-Activist in Cold War America: 1946-1956." vol. 63-64, pages 255-85, Spring-Summer 1984. Published after the thesis was written, but certainly worth reading for a critical evaluation of Schlesinger's anti-communism.
Saturday Evening Post
"Washington's Missing Papers Mystery," (Jul.12, 1947), (AS), public release of FDR papers.
"Our New‑Found Leisure Won't Bore Us If Some of it is Used in Reading," (Apr.18, 1959), (AS) .
"An Informal History of Love U.S.A.," (Dec.31, 1966), (AS).
"The Life of the Party," (Jul.16, 1949), (AS), what it's like to a communist.
"The Right to Loathsome Ideas," (May 14, 1949), (AS), Communists and academic freedom.
South Atlantic Quarterly
Carol Englehardt, "Man in the Middle," (Spring 1981), Leftist critique.
"Tragedy of History," (Oct.24, 1949), discusses Schlesinger's attack on Civil War revisionism.
"Who's Adlai?" (Oct.27, 1952), mentioned on p. 32.
"The Moonlight Writer," (June 29, 1962), the controversy with outside writing at the white House.
"From the Professor's Notebook," (Jul.23, 1965).
"Disenchantment with State," (Jul.30, 1965), serialization of A Thousand Days.
"Trials of the Instant Author," (Aug.27, 1965), about A Thousand Days.
"The Combative Chronicler," (Dec.17, 1965), major biographical piece.
"Swinging Soothsayer," (Mar.3, 1967), social life.
U.S. News and World Report
"What Kind of President Will Johnson Make?" (Nov.16, 1964), Schlesinger interview.
The essays collected in The Politics of Hope(Boston, 1963), andThe Crisis of Confidence (Boston, 1969) contain the most important articles.
The New York Timeswas essential; several other papers had a few articles of interest.
Interviews were the highlights of my work. Professors Schlesinger and Galbraith answered my questions thoughtfully and patiently. Attorney General MacFarlane's enthusiasm for Schlesinger as a teacher helped balance the written accounts of his Harvard career. The interview dates were: Professor Galbraith, Dec.8, 1981, at his home in Cambridge. Professor Schlesinger, Jan.14, 1982, at his office at the City University of New York; and Mar. 29, 1982; and Apr. 23, 1982 by telephone. Attorney General MacFarlane, Apr. 7, 1982, at his office in Denver.
This is the bibliography from David B. Kopel, The Highbrow in American Politics: Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. and the Role of the Intellectual in Politics. Honors Thesis in History, Brown University, May 1982. Awarded Highest Honors, and the National Geographic Society Prize for best History thesis. Other chapters are available on-line at http://www.davekopel.org/schlesinger/main.htm.
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